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A practical guide to geostatistical mapping of environmental variables

Geostatistical mapping can be defined as analytical production of maps by using field observations, auxiliary information and a computer program that calculates values at locations of interest. Today, increasingly the heart of a mapping project is, in fact, the computer program that implements some (geo)statistical algorithm to a given point data set. Purpose of this guide is to assist you in producing quality maps by using fully-operational tools, without a need for serious additional investments.


Hong Song of the Missouri Botanical Garden, developed this Java-based program using MySQL as the database server. Botanists interested in sharing their data sets (e.g., DELTA, MS Excel, MS Access, Lucid formats) via this Web-based system, or interested in translating any of the character sets into another language may contact Hong Song or Anthony R. Brach.


The AnimalBase database is primarily established to link the old literature with the names of the animals described therein. We have continuously gone through the old works, from 1757 onwards, and entered all correctly described new animal names (genera and species taxa) by hand according to a standard established by our working group. Today the database should include all zoological taxa described from 1757 until 1770. The names are entered into the database along the original literature and largely independently from other databases and secondary literature sources, so that errors will not be duplicated.


Bauble is a software application to help manage a collection of botanical specimens. It is intended to be used by botanic gardens, herbaria, arboreta, etc. It can use different database backends and is tested against SQLite and PostgreSQL. It can generate reports through an XSL formatter backend. There is no fancy report designer but there is an interface that allows you to pass the results of a search through an XSL formatter. This allows you to layout your data any way you wish and save it in many formats including PDF, XML, or HTML. Users can tag any arbitrary data stored in a Bauble managed database with arbitrary names. This way you can create collections of records organized the way you want with names you give them.

Berlin Model

The Berlin Model is based on the IOPI model and various later implementations of the basic principles laid out therein. It fully incorporates "potential taxa" (taxa as circumscribed by a reference) as well as the full complexity of botanical names according to the rules of botanical nomenclature. Actually the Berlin Model is implemented as a SQL Server 2000 database. Please contact us for any question or comment.


BGBM Collection Management Software links

This page lists software which is used in collection management. It is an uncritical listing, the software has not been tested or approved by the subgroup in any way. The selection is based on the following criteria:



BibDesk is a bibliographic reference manager for Mac OS X. BibDesk is designed to help organize and use bibliographic databases in BibTeX .bib format. In addition to manual typing, BibDesk lets you drag & drop or cut & paste .bib files into the bibliographic database and automatically opens files downloaded from PubMed. BibDesk also keeps track of electronic copies of literature on your computer and allows for searching your database through several keys.

BibDesk integrates well with TeX for creating citations and bibliographies. This integration includes a Citation search completion service, and drag & drop (cut & paste) support for adding citations to TeX files.




Bibster is a Java-based system which assists researchers in managing, searching, and sharing bibliographic metadata (e.g. from BibTeX files) in a peer-to-peer network.


BIOCLIM utilizes a boxcar environmental envelope algorithm to identify locations that have environmental conditions that fall within the environmental range recorded for present occurrences. Specifically the minimum and maximum values for each environmental predictor are identified to define the multidimensional environmental box where the element is known to occur. Study area sites that hale environmental conditions within the boundaries of the multidimensional box are predicted as potential sites of occupancy. Uses presence occurrence data only.

Software available with DIVA GIS.


Biodiverse is a tool for the spatial analysis of diversity using indices based on taxonomic, phylogenetic and matrix-based (e.g. genetic distance) relationships, as well as related environmental and temporal variations. Biodiverse supports four processes: (1) linked visualisation of data distributions in geographic, taxonomic, phylogenetic and matrix spaces; (2) spatial moving window analyses including richness, endemism, phylogenetic diversity and beta diversity; (3) spatially constrained agglomerative cluster analyses; and (4) randomisations for hypothesis testing. Biodiverse is open-source and supports user developed extensions.

Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL)

Ten major natural history museum libraries, botanical libraries, and research institutions have joined to form the Biodiversity Heritage Library Project. The group is developing a strategy and operational plan to digitize the published literature of biodiversity held in their respective collections. This literature will be available through a global “biodiversity commons.”

Biomapper. A GIS-toolkit to model ecological niche and habitat suitability

Biomapperis a kit of GIS and statistical tools designed to build habitat suitability models and maps for any kind of animal or plant. It is centred on the Ecological Niche Factor Analysisthat allows to compute models without the need of absence data.


BioOffice features an integrated database and geographic information system, options for (spatial) data query and analysis, individual configuration, and easy data exchange between users.

Biota - The Biodiversity Database manager

Biota 2 is a second generation Collection Management system succeeding Biota 1. It has several exemplary features including a versatile help system and very flexible support for non-compliant data formats. It supports images in the collection system allowing for 10 different leading image formats and an unlimited number of images linked to any one specimen, further allowing the images to be displayed as thumbnails to be opened at full size with zoom capabilities. It also offers an optional web hosting platform that allows institutions to host their collections online for web visitors to browse through. The web hosting is provided at an additional cost.


BRAHMS - Botanical Research and Herbarium Managment System

The BRAHMS management system is design specifically for botanical collections, it includes a broad range of help and support documentation and even resources for online training. There are functions for outputting reports in a variety of customizable templates. It includes a system for generating distribution summaries and diversity indicators to different geographic scales. It also supports Publishing data online with an updating service and provides the option to join your database with online groups of research projects or regional herbaria. The online publishing is accomplished with a seconds software package found on their web site.


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